President of the Republic of Srpska Milorad Dodik, during the last meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin in St. Petersburg, made two new moves in his Rusophilic strategy. He invited Putin to visit Banja Luka and the Russian media to strengthen the presence in Bosnia and Herzegovina
With this, Dodik calls on the Kremlin to boost its influence in the RS and BiH. country.
Dodik's preference for Russia is not based on emotions, but is motivated by the search for an international hinterland that will allow him political stability through increasing RS's autonomy until independence.
Dodik is an ideological and political pervert. From the founder of the party of social-democratic determination, he became a fierce Greater Serbian nationalist, from a bitter atheist to an estranged Orthodox, from a man who sought the punishment of war criminals like Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic to the celebrity of their character and deeds, from politicians of BiH. orientations to separatists who in every way try to destroy bh. country. It should be remembered that Dodik was an American favorite and installed under the shadow of a Western weapon as the Prime Minister of the RS, and now he is on the black list of the White House and Moscow's favorite.
Therefore, Dodik needs a special relationship with Russia in order to preserve its status, in order to dominate the RS for an indefinite period. Dodik wants to be Putin in a miniature. With the name of the RS president, the opposition and independent media are bundling a series of criminal actions, clientelism and nepotism (the truth is for the will, followed by the other two key politicians - Bakir Izetbegovic and Dragan Covic).
Such a profile corresponds to Putin Russia where it wants to achieve a subversive influence, within strategic hybrid warfare.
In this type of global competition with the West, the Russian self-styled sasma is also responding to the call by the Russian media to aggressively move towards and in BiH. [Num]
Dayton framework for external influences
The Peace Agreement for Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Constitution of BiH established by this international treaty have a significant impact on the geopolitical position of Bosnia and Herzegovina. countries. The possibility of national and entity veto at the state level makes BiH. authorities dependent on the will of the national parties.
The state is dysfunctional, it can not establish efficient government on the inner plan or emancipate itself internationally. Less or more, the authorities are in a lasting crisis since the beginning of their post-Dayton establishment. In this election year, this crisis escalates to an alarming scale.
Particularly important is the relationship with neighbors in the state Constitution. Namely, the Dayton arrangement of BiH envisages the right of the entities to special parallel ties for Serbia and Croatia. This right applies to the relations of the two entities, but in practice it is the policy of an ever-firmer connection of Republika Srpska to Serbia and a canton with the dominance of Croats with Croatia. Croatia renounced the use of special and parallel links with the Federation of BiH, as well as the Republika Srpska, advocating, in principle, for dialogue and cooperation exclusively on the interstate level. In reality, all the authorities and all ruling parties of the Western neighbor have established cross-border Croatian-Croatian cooperation that disparages BiH. power. Between R (epublicic) S (rbije) and R (epublic) S (rpska), relations are above those of the constitution envisioned and established as relations between the two Serbian states that await the history of unification.
Dayton destruction bh. state and social identity also contributes to the possibility of obtaining dual citizenship in Croatia and Serbia for BiH. citizens. Thus, the highest state and entity officials of Serbian and Croatian nationalities vote in the elections in the neighboring countries, and from BiH there are staff of the Croatian Democratic Union and others in the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia.
The constitutional circumstances and policies formed within them do not allow BiH to establish and maintain a consistent and fruitful internal and external policy. The primary and primary responsibility for international relations is the Presidency of BiH. But, among other things, legal absurdity is that if one of the members of the collective head of state is too loud, he can turn to the entity parliament in which he is elected. If the Entity Parliament falls behind the position of that member of the BiH Presidency, the majority decision in that authority becomes invalid. Therefore, even in the conduct of foreign policy, in fact, the entities are above the state. Out of memory. All in all, the Dayton Constitution makes BiH weak, both inside and outside.
Croatia and Serbia are continually reiterating their commitment to the integrity of BiH. countries, and in practice they do the opposite. Their representatives spell on them interesting areas with an uncrowned arrogance against the BH. statehood and international legally formal independence. Political, economic and other lobbies of Serbia and Croatia are part of the current BH. system of government.
Opening space for Russia
Such a constitutional and political constellation gives great opportunities for foreign influences, even for Russia, with two, even three lines. The first is the use of loose bh. countries. The second is the activity in the Prorus Channel in the direction of Serbia - Republic of Srpska. And the third, strategic clash between the leaders of the Alliance of Independent Democrats and the Croatian Democratic Union of BiH - Milorad Dodik and Dragan Čović), which is not opposed by the President of the Republic of Croatia and all Croats Kolinda Grabar - Kitarović and others at the top of the Croatian government. Covic objectively plays in favor of Moscow .
In a blinded prejudice that Bosniaks (Muslims) are the biggest danger for Serbs (Orthodox) and Croats (Catholics) in BiH, they forget about Zagreb what would mean the secession of the Republic of Srpska and its united with Serbia in its geopolitical position.
Let's stay in the presence of Russia in Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a minority, the Russians almost disappeared in BiH. About the relationship between Russia and B & H is an interesting article on Prometheus. [Num]
In the commentary Russia here (Oslobodjenje, August 15, 1995, transmitted in book Bosnia and Herzegovina in the wake of unfinished wars, Media Center, Sarajevo 2017), among other things, I wrote:
A year and a half ago, when a zone of exclusion of heavy weapons was established around Sarajevo, TV stations made images that are not forgotten. Russian soldiers with UN labels and with three fingers. There followed the enthusiasm with the Chetniks, the burning of roasted oxen, the drunkenness and every kind of Orthodox brotherhood ... The Russians met with the Russians in the criminal ranks. Palais were especially fond of Russian volunteers and mercenaries. Agresor was hiking, advising and helping both military and other emissaries from Russia. All the time comes support from the Russian political milieu "big Serbia" ... Russian weapons have been in the service of aggression and genocide in BiH since the beginning. Destroyed and confiscated weapons, the enemy quickly compensated for the Russian ties ... The United States and the European Union have accepted from the outset the role of Russia on the territory of former Yugoslavia as being implicit ... Russia is thus given a lot of interference in the "war" and its " settling "in this region. After being expelled from Germany and the "lager" countries, the Russians settled where they could not be even when they were the strongest ... Russia's strategic expansion into the Balkans means a new element of destabilization. With the Russians here the world is closer to a global war ..
So, 23 years ago I pointed to the possible danger of the presence of Russia in this region. I dealt with this topic, and in the meantime, among other things, Russia is resurrecting Yalta:
A more rigorous performance of the Kremlin in this region also announced the arrival of the Russian ambassador to BiH Alexander Bocan-Haren, who initially strengthened one-way politics in and towards BiH, unreservedly supporting the policy embodied by RS Prime Minister Milorad Dodik, even when it is clearly directed against themselves the foundations of the Dayton Agreement to which the guarantor is Russia. Thus, we have a projection in the manner of Jalta (there was held a conference of the power of the victories over Nazismism on the division of the spheres of interest between the countries of the West of the USSR. According to some claims, the influence of Yugoslavia between the East and the West is divided into 50:50 - Z.D. The poor BiH state and nothing more convincing OHR (Office of the High Representative in BiH - Z.D.) in recent years are opening Moscow's space for blocking, which is basically consolidating the position among Serbs here and hindering the approaching of BiH. countries in Euro-Atlantic integrations (...) Special attention should be paid to both Brussels and the NATO in the context of the new global Russian doctrine ... (Oslobodjenje, February 13, 2010)
When it comes to the first aspect of Moscow's presence, the most important Russian economic factor in BiH is gas. At the time of communist rule, BiH relied on gas supplies only to the USSR. Rational politicians have warned of the danger of this uniqueness in this strategic issue, especially since Yugoslavia, as the leader of the non-aligned movement, and BiH with developed cooperation in those countries could provide alternative gas supplies. This problem lasts.
Russia's economic engagement in BiH has no special weight. What is interesting is the spread of Sberbank in BiH. Moscow has no opportunities and interests for large investments in BiH , where the EU's leading investment, and China is increasingly present.
Dodik is in tune with economic ties with Russia, but there is little benefit from that entity . Russian engagement in the energy sector has even benefited Russia, and RS losses. The President of the RS is constantly announcing assistance and favorable loans from there, but this is not realized. Moscow directed the cooperation with the Republic of Srpska primarily through the Sanktpeterbuske guberni. During the last visit of Dodik to Russia, an agreement was signed on cooperation between RS and the Nizhny Novgorod region. They also opened the possibility of expanding Russian influence through cultural programs.
Instrumentalization of Republika Srpska
The parastatal creation of the Republika Srpska was created as a denial of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Greater Serbia aggression against Bosnia and Herzegovina, and it still functions today, although it is only an entity - a territorial-administrative unit within the BH. countries. "Srpska" remained the main lever of unshakable aspirations of the Greater Serbia, which it regards as the greatest achievement of this endeavor (Dobrica Cosic also said about this) and the compensation for the lost in Croatia, Montenegro and Kosovo, but also the hope for unification with Serbia.
The United States, as the creators of the Dayton-based BiH, will not even discuss the abolition of the RS, regardless of the extent to which politics is at odds with the Dayton Accords. The Republic of Srpska and the United States and the EU thus serve as a compensatory argument in the process of drawing Serbia to its side. There is no meaningful reservation in the right-wing circles in the West towards the BH. Muslims no matter what Europeans are.
Today RS is primarily instrumentalizing its long-running Dodik for the sake of preserving power and self. Nationalist opposition in that RS entity sees, firstly, as a branch of Serbia when it comes to internal and external politics.
Vlaho-Croatian separatist-hegemonic ambitions in and towards BH. the state uses the existence of the RS to prove that a Croatian entity in BiH is also necessary. In this constellation, the RS is a convenient argument for the radicalization of the Bosniak-Muslim corps.
Such an inter-political and international framework, with RS at the center, has come to infiltrate the Kremlin's policy. Russia thus gained the space for its global games and gained its player (k) in this planetary competition.
Following this relationship the forces of the Kremlin demonstrated superpower arrogance in and towards the BH. during the visit of the President of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of Russia, Valentina Matvijenko. The guest from Moscow abused the speaker of the House of Peoples of the State Parliament of BiH with fierce criticism of third countries, the redefinition of the BiH tragic tragedy and interference in BiH's internal affairs.
Matvienko collapsed in the United States due to her relationship with Russia, to NATO because of the expansion in the Balkans. Stating that Montenegro has entered the North Atlantic Treaty, past the will of the half of the population there, and that Macedonia's accession is being prepared - indirectly threatened those countries and sent a warning to BiH . At the same time, it requested the closure of the Office of the High Representative (OHR).
It was particularly annoying claim that Matvienko was a civil war in BiH, which would say that there was not even an aggression that led to the worst war crimes to genocide in line with big politics. It should be remembered here that a monument to Vitaly Churkin was erected in RS in the signal of gratitude that he vetoed the adoption of a resolution in the UN Security Council on Srebrenica genocide. [Num]
Stating that the Dayton Agreement "alpha and omega" for Russia, Matvienko promoted the views of Milorad Dodik as the Kremlin's position. Seeks to reform the judiciary, challenging the state judicial authorities, on the line of returning powers to the entities entrusted to BiH authorities. Namely, Matvienko supports the original Dayton Constitution, whereby Dodik is injected, although his SNSD has just voted for key post-Dayton constitutional changes.
After meeting with members of the BiH Presidency, Bakir Izetbegovic said that he and Dragan Covic had opposite views. As he said, Covic apologized to Matvienko for reacting to her remarks. [Num] A Russian politician praised BiH for not joining sanctions against Russia over Ukraine. It should be noted that Matvienko was housed in BiH although he is on the blacklist of the US, Canada and the EU precisely because of the Russian policy towards Ukraine and the accession of the Crimea to the Russian Federation.
After Sarajevo, Matvijenko visited Banja Luka with rigid security measures It is forbidden to drink alcohol, open windows and so on. A Russian politician, who is regarded as the third in power in the Kremlin, emphasized that the Republic of Srpska is an important partner of Russia in the Balkans. That sentence is all told. Dodik pointed to the Resolution of the RS National Assembly on the military neutrality of that entity. Firstly, international treaties concerning the whole of BiH are exclusively the state's authority. Secondly, Article 84 of the Law on Defense of BiH, the activity for admission to NATO membership is legally binding
The US Embassy in Sarajevo says that the ratings of a high Russian politician are false and not the accusation of the charges and do not deserve special comment. The OHR reminded Matvienko that Russia is a member of the Peace Implementation Council in BiH (PIC), and that the conditions that this body has established for the abolition of the Office of the High Representative are not met. In the meantime, the PIC announced. The PIC Steering Board reminded all parties of the obligation to fully comply with the Peace Agreement, all its annexes and decisions of the High Representative. Once again, he reaffirmed his unquestionable commitment to the territorial integrity and basic structure of BiH as a single and sovereign state consisting of two entities.
The Steering Board reiterated that the entities have no right to secession from BiH and that they legally exist only on the basis of the BiH Constitution . Russian Ambassador Petar Ivancov supported all PIC positions apart from the paragraph: "The disproportionate long pipe purchases realized by individual law enforcement agencies have been a cause for concern." First of all, this refers to the purchase of the contingent of rifles for RS police.
Media influence of the Kremlin
We will see what will bring Dodik's call to the Russian media to strengthen the presence in BiH. As to the current situation, it is not possible to present all aspects of the presence of Russian interests in the media space of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, given the essential, but difficultly comprehensible activities via the Internet (hacking, false and semi-truthful information, use of social networks, targeted portals) .
Among other things, the aspect of media activities within the hybrid war was dealt with by the former owner and editor-in-chief (and now lawyer) of the Sarajevo weekly Dani within the inscription on the "Gerasimov's doctrine" . Among the contents is the story of the alleged establishment of a Russian military base in RS.
Harassment bh. the Serbian government's armed forces with 2.500 thousand special guns from Serbian Zastava were contributed by the public. This information, accompanied by speculation that the RS police will train Russian specialists, was also echoed in Europe . The consent for procurement of this weapon was also given by the BH. institutions that caused controversial reactions. The media has also been engaged in days for announcing the arrival of the Night Wolves, Putin's favorites and "special emissaries" in BiH, as another proof of the hybrid war of Russia in these areas. [Num]
Regardless of the real weight of these goods, Russia has been portrayed as a dangerous player through them, which must be respected, and for others encouraging their destructive intentions.
From the point of official policy and influence in public broadcasting services in BiH, the most important (pro) Russian influence is achieved in the programs of the Radio Television of Republika Srpska. The monitoring of the RTRS program is also available on the pages of this portal. [Num] This public service affirms Putin's policy, but the relationship between Russia and the Republic of Srpska and Dodik is at the center of that relationship. The Belgrade Calling Officer and military quasianalitian have an exclusive weekly term in the RTRS program. The basis of this show, with the apology of Dodik, is aimed at sending anti-American, anti-European and anti-NATO messages - and pro-Russian messages. The influence of Russia in the RTRS is also realized thanks to the pan-Orthodox dimension of the program of this house.
Cable TV My TV public company BH Telecom does not have a program with a Russian sign on its repertoire, but it has RTRS and other RTV programs from the Republic of Srpska and the Republic of Serbia. Another powerful cable operator Telemach has a Russia Today channel. The cable network m: tel in the RS offers a channel 24 Russia.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, in RS, there is not a strong foreign policy department in news agencies or the most influential media. This opens space for inserting, spinning and manipulating.
BiH as an international hunting ground
The state-building and political immunity of Bosnia and Herzegovina began to weaken with the process of the dissolution of the SFRY (the republics within the SFRY were constitutionally defined as countries that were part of the key competencies transferred to the Federation). Tito's Yugoslavia was a protective ring for BiH. With the victory of nationalist parties in the first multi-party elections in late 1990, the internal layering of BiH began, stimulated by the formation of nationalist policies in other republics - hegemonic and (li) separatist. The aggression of the eastern neighbors, with the cooperation of Western neighbors, was supposed to end statehood and the existence of BiH as a historical feature.
In the dissolution of the SFRY - as international diplomacy called the tragic disintegration of Yugoslavia - behind Germany and Austria were Germany, Austria and the Vatican, behind Serbia (then in the union with Montenegro), Russia, France and Great Britain, the United States played on the Albanian ticket two and one-half of the Albanian state), Macedonia was well in that circle due to Kira Gligorova's state art. Bosnia and Herzegovina was without any international hinterland.
Such circumstances, during and after the war, opened up space for various external influences and beyond the international presence envisaged by the Dayton Agreement. The United States tacitly allowed the Armies of BiH to come with weapons from Iran, because the shameful resolution of the Security Council prohibited the arming of "all parties to the conflict". BiH received aggression against the attackers. In addition to the Iranian influence - by the line of pan-Islamic links that is at the heart of the organization of the Young Muslims, to which Alija Izetbegović belonged, followed by the son Bakir - installed their interests in BiH, in particular, Saudi Arabia and in recent years emphasized Turkey.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has built excellent relations with Serbian President Aleksandar Vucic, Turkish investments are growing in Serbia and visibly surpass those in BiH. It is worthwhile that Ankara encourages the cooperation between Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the willingness to participate in the precious project Belgrade - Sarajevo Highway.
Erdoğan is paternalistic towards BiH (he claims that Alija Izetbegović left BiH in the Amanet) and in some way considers the Turkish province, which is also a challenge for most Bosniaks. Erdoğan and Izetbegovic meet every little bit. Particularly negative reactions in the country and in Europe have prompted the pre-election rally of the Turkish president in Sarajevo's Zetri after such meetings were not allowed in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands. That meeting was also one of Izetbegovic's pre-election manifestations, as the president of the Party of Democratic Action.
"I am glad to see the blended flags of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Turkey, we have been together for a long time and we lived well and we fought well together," speech delivered to Zetra Bakir Izetbegović was brilliant. This irrational Ottoman sentiment and Turkostalgia in Izetbegović's stance, irritates the Serbs, Croats and others here, as well as all the Bosniaks who are with them.
And Serbia's dual policy towards Bosnia and Herzegovina testifies as follows: President of the Serbian Assembly Committee for Kosovo and Metohija Milovan Drecun said that Serbia must define priority goals in the coming period and stressed that it must be bound to solve the problems of Kosovo and Metohija Republika Srpska .
West without a real plan
The interests of the United States, as the creator of the Peace Agreement, flared up to BiH for two reasons. One focus is on geopolitical priorities, first on the Eurasian plateau, and then in the Pacific. Recently, the name of the Pentagon command in that region was changed to the Indo-Pacific.
The other is here. Namely, Washington's engagement quit after having failed in the Parliamentary Assembly in 2006. April package with significant amendments. It was foreseen to strengthen the central government, BiH would get the government, all the decisions of the high representatives would be introduced into the BiH Constitution. The package was demolished before all the Party for BiH by Haris Silajdzic (because it was envisaged that the Presidency was elected in Parliament, which did not give Silajdzic any chance), along with a part of HDZ deputies and one deputy SDA. Since then things in BiH have been moving downhill. Dodik's SNSD supported the amendments, but after they failed, he turns to more radical nationalism and separatism.
The European Union all the time keeps a loose policy. He simply does not know what to do with BiH and the region. The breakthrough of Russia, the appearance of radicalism under the guise of Islam and civil protests in BiH, especially in February 2014, were alarmed by the EU. Germany has launched a new initiative, primarily a socio-economic nature. However, here the primary problem is always political.
Now, a new strategy for the Western Balkans has been brought into the EU, but with French skepticism and an unhindered situation and controversial policies within the Union. Donald Trump has tightened relations with the EU by initiating a trade war and demanding a redistribution of costs for NATO.
Globally, with an inevitable reflection and in this space, Turkey's closer, as a particularly geostrategically significant NATO member, with Russia is evident. After Trump dropped from the West's agreement with Iran on control of Tehran's nuclear potential, Iran is also in the hands of Russia.
Bosnia and Herzegovina needs a more complete and more resolute relationship between international authorities for its stabilization and the opening of a development perspective. So, it is necessary, first of all, to coordinate the strategic approach of the US and the EU. First of all, Dodik stirs with it.
In Republika Srpska, these days disturbance has sparked news that the United Kingdom is sending an additional 40 soldiers and officers to EU and NATO missions in BiH with the British Times's claim that it was "preventing Russia from interfering in the general election in October". The embassy in Sarajevo denies this and point out that the United Kingdom has responded to a request to send these soldiers to improve the EUFOR's capacity to review the situation and the security of the security environment in BiH. Within the EUFOR mission "Altea", 600 soldiers are deployed in BiH, out of which only four are from the UK. British Defense Minister Gavin Williamson says British troops will contribute to the "specialist oversight of an intelligence working group" comprised of allies of the EU and NATO, who will monitor the election campaign and stay for six months in the Balkans .
Republika Srpska President Milorad Dodik said that 40 British intelligence officers are confined to a military unit, whose task will be to listen to, and monitor the right information for the media "This is the entry of people of this caliber, meaning intelligence camouflaged to soldiers who will work on eavesdropping, tracking and creating information and possibly servicing that information to the media, "Dodik told RTRS.
No matter how they interpret the arrival of this group of British soldiers, that is, on the one hand, part of the new positioning of Great Britain on the world stage after Brexit, and on the other hand, showing muscles to Russia from the West.
President of the Republic of Srpska, Milorad Dodik, is also fearful of non-governmental organizations. He believes that the law on the public work of non-profit organizations should be adopted in this BiH entity. And it looks like Putin's attitude towards non-governmental organizations in Russia.
Dodik also called the US Embassy in BiH for donations to the media. . Obviously, Dodik took over the pre-election paranoia. Among other things, he is annoyed by a continuous protest for concealing samples and guilty evidence in the case of the death of David Dragičević and increasing support for these demonstrations. [Num]
The importance of the October elections
Democratic public and international authorities in BiH are afraid of the outcome of the October elections and what will happen before and after that. The nationalistic rhetoric of three striking ethnicities - SNSD, HDZ, SDA - is becoming more and more warlike. Party narrow-mindedness and leadership egoism made it impossible to create a civic alliance that would have the prospect of governing parliaments at the state and Federation level.
The most dangerous scenario is that the three national right-wing parties win the majority in the Parliament and the BiH Presidency. There are too many parties and independent candidates in the match so that the votes that will be taken by the outsiders can bring victory to the benefit of national or alternative competitors.
Stress is caused by the fact that amendments to the electoral laws have not been adopted on the basis of the decision of the Constitutional Court of BiH regarding, first of all, changes in the way of elections in the homes of the people of the state and the FBiH. The HDZ wanted to use that decision beyond its essence, in order to ensure the durability of its rule in the area where it is dominant. Their proposal changes are beyond any legal and democratic logic and are extremely disorienting. Controversies that the HDZBiH does not approve followed.
Due to manipulation of these and other issues, and in order to encourage nationalistic passions among the BH. Croats, leader of the HDZ Dragan Covic, came to the forefront of international authorities in BiH. Together with the SNSD, the HDZ rejected changes that would allow much better control of the electoral process and reduce the theft of votes.
The most eminent embassies and the Venice Commission have been involved in the efforts to amend the laws of the Constitutional Court of BiH. Namely, there could be problems in the establishment of the House of Peoples in the Federation of BiH, at the state level, and thus, a possible blockade in the constitution of power after the October elections. This could bring BiH into a new phase of the crisis with incalculable consequences. This would extend the space for destructive interference from the outside.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, they are in the work of Russian games (ack) e. But Russia is not the only one. The power of the Russian Federation in this region will depend on the further strengthening of this great power, but above all, whether the United States and the EU, and in particular and jointly, will establish a consistent, complex and long-term policy towards the region and, in particular, towards Bosnia and Herzegovina. Germany's strong engagement here as well as France, which essentially continues to ignore BiH and the region, and the Great Britain, which after the mandate of Paddy Ashdown is very positively related to BiH, country.
It is necessary to create an international environment for BiH. in order to make it more functional, democratic and more and more countries of law. In this context, it is important for BiH to have a better relationship with Russia on a regular basis and without an effort to disturb its future, which must inevitably be based on Euro-Atlantic integrations.
Of course, the most important factor in the development of the situation in the region depends on what will happen in Serbia and where the policy of Belgrade will move, especially with regard to Kosovo and the position of the Serbs there. It is important, in this regard, whether Macedonia will soon be in NATO. This would help Western policy and NATO then focus on BiH.
In the end, no external influence will yield sufficient and lasting positive results until a strong internal democratic Euro-Atlantic bloc is created, as an alternative to nationalist policies that destroy BiH. society and state.
* This text was sponsored by NATO PDD
* The views expressed in this text are the responsibility of the author and do not reflect the views of donors.